Gen Akin Ozturk and 26 senior officers were charged with treason and remanded in custody by a court on Monday, the state-run Anadolu news agency said, according to BBC News.
But in a statement to prosecutors, the general insisted: "I am not the person who planned or led the coup."
Anadolu had earlier quoted him as telling interrogators that he had "acted with intention to stage a coup".
Officials have blamed the unrest, which killed at least 232 people and wounded 1,400, on the US-based Muslim cleric Fethullah Gulen and the "parallel structure" they say he has formed to topple the government.
Read alsoMuslim cleric Gulen: coup bid in Turkey could have been staged"I don't know who planned or directed it. According to my experiences, I think that the [Gulen movement] attempted this coup," Gen Ozturk was quoted as telling prosecutors by Anadolu before appearing in court in Ankara.
"But I cannot tell who within the armed forces organized and carried it out. I have no information. I have fought against this structure."
Read alsoTurkey government seems to have had list of arrests prepared: HahnIn an interview with the BBC on Monday evening, Mr Gulen called the attempted takeover "treason" and urged the government to produce evidence of his alleged involvement, saying Turkey was no longer really a democracy.