Aleksandr Kogan, the Cambridge University academic who orchestrated the harvesting of Facebook data, had previously unreported links to a Russian university, including a teaching position and grants for research into the social media network, the Observer has discovered.
Cambridge Analytica, the data firm he worked with – which funded the project to turn tens of millions of Facebook profiles into a unique political weapon – also attracted interest from a key Russian firm with links to the Kremlin, The Guardian wrote.
Energy firm Lukoil, which is now on the U.S. sanctions list and has been used as a vehicle of government influence, saw a presentation on the firm's work in 2014. It began with a focus on voter suppression in Nigeria, and Cambridge Analytica also discussed "micro-targeting" individuals on social media during elections.
The revelations come at a time of intense U.S. scrutiny of Russian meddling in the 2016 U.S. presidential election, with 13 Russians criminally charged last month with interfering to help Donald Trump.
In Britain, concerns about Russian propaganda have been mounting, with the prime minister, Theresa May, recently attacking Russia for spreading fake news, accusing Moscow of attempts to "weaponise information" and influence polls.
Lukoil, Russia's second-largest oil company, discussed with Cambridge Analytica the data company's powerful social media marketing system, which was already being deployed for Republican Ted Cruz in the U.S. presidential primaries and was later used to back Brexit and Trump.
Alexander Nix, chief executive of Cambridge Analytica, emailed colleagues after initial contacts to say that Lukoil wanted a clearer explanation of "how our services are going to apply to the petroleum business."
"They understand behavioural micro-targeting in the context of elections (as per your excellent document/white paper) but they are failing to make the connection between voters and their consumers," he wrote in an email seen by the Observer.
A slide presentation prepared for the Lukoil pitch focuses first on election disruption strategies used by Cambridge Analytica's parent company, SCL, in Nigeria. They are presented under the heading "Election: Inoculation," a military term used in "psychological operations" and disinformation campaigns. Other SCL documents show that the material shared with Lukoil included posters and videos apparently aimed at alarming or demoralising voters, including warnings of violence and fraud.
Discussion of services offered by Cambridge Analytica was apparently going right to the top of Lukoil, even though its retail operations in America are a very minor corner of the oil and gas giant's empire. Asking for a detailed presentation of Cambridge Analytica's work in July 2014, Nix told his colleague the document would be "shared with the CEO of the business."
The chief executive of Lukoil, Vagit Alekperov, is a former Soviet oil minister who has said the strategic aims of Lukoil are closely aligned with those of Russia. "I have only one task connected with politics, to help the country and the company. I'm not close to Mr Putin, but I treat him with great respect," he told the New York Times.
Cambridge Analytica said an affiliate company had talked to Lukoil Turkey about a loyalty card scheme and proposed a pilot study with a small number of petrol stations there, but the project had not gone ahead. "[The talks] were about potential commercial work in Turkey and did not involve any discussion of political work," a spokesman said. "Cambridge Analytica and its affiliate companies have not worked in Russia and have not worked for a Russian company or organisation."
Last month Nix told MPs: "We have never worked with a Russian organisation in Russia or any other company. We do no have any relationship with Russia or Russian individuals."
That appears to contradict the company documents seen by the Observer, that list Russia as one of the countries where Cambridge Analytica and affiliate companies have clients.
Lukoil did not respond to requests for comments.
Kogan, a lecturer who worked with Cambridge Analytica on building up the database of U.S. voters then at the heart of the company's plans, said he had not had any connection to the Lukoil pitch.
But while he was helping turn Facebook profiles into a political tool he was also an associate professor at St Petersburg State University, taking Russian government grants to fund other research into social media. "Stress, health, and psychological wellbeing in social networks: cross-cultural investigation" was the title of one piece of research. Online posts showed Kogan lecturing in Russian. One talk was called: "New methods of communication as an effective political instrument."