The department said Alexey Barysheff of Brooklyn, New York - a naturalized U.S. citizen - was arrested for illegally exporting controlled technology. Russian nationals Dmitrii Aleksandrovich Karpenko and Alexey Krutilin were simultaneously arrested on charges of conspiring with Barysheff, it said, according to Reuters.
All three were scheduled to appear in court on Thursday afternoon.
In its complaint, the government alleged the defendants had engaged in a conspiracy to obtain microelectronics from manufacturers and suppliers in the United States and export them to Russia while evading government controls on high-tech exports.
Read alsoRussian lawmaker's son in U.S. trial on hacking indictmentThe United States restricts the export of items it believes could make a significant contribution to the military potential and weapons proliferation of other nations and undermine U.S. national security.
The Justice Department said the microelectronics allegedly shipped to Russia included digital-to-analog converters and integrated circuits frequently used in a wide range of military systems, including radar and missile guidance systems.
It said Barysheff had registered two companies in New York that were used as front companies to purchase and export the controlled technology, while concealing from their suppliers the intended final destination.
If convicted of the charges, the defendants face up to 25 years in prison and a $1 million fine.